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      科研管理 2019, Vol. 40 Issue       (9) :108-119 论文   DOI:
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       基于科学的创业企业发展与演化研究——以诺贝尔奖科学家参与创建的企业为例
       张庆芝1,戚耀元2,雷家骕2
        1中国科学院大学 公共政策与管理学院,北京100049;
2 清华大学 经济管理学院,北京100084
       A research on the development and evolution of science-based entrepreneurial firms
       Zhang Qingzhi1,Qi Yaoyuan 2,Lei Jiasu2
       1. School of Public Policy and Management, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China;
2. School of Economics and Management, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
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摘要 随着生物制药、纳米、新材料等领域的崛起,一种新的基于科学的创业企业随之诞生。这类企业与基础科学研究紧密相连,推动着科学的创新。本文以诺奖科学家参与创建,旨在商业化其研究成果的企业为案例,从管理团队、资金来源、企业合作及产品研发四个纬度研究了基于科学的创业企业发展与演化特征。通过分析此类企业管理团队发现,基于科学的创业企业管理层通常由“前沿科学家+商业人士”的组合,既能使企业处于科研前沿面,又有效地保障了企业资源获取及运营管理;从资金来源看,创业初期的资金来源主要有政府基金和风险投资,政府资助支持了企业早期研发并降低了私人投资的风险;企业发展阶段的主要资金来源主要有风险投资、公开募股、商业合作以及运营知识产权等,多元化的资金来源有效支撑了企业巨大的研发支出;企业合作主要有学术合作与商业合作两类,学术合作保持企业处于科学前沿同时获得最新专利;商业合作缩短了产品的研发周期,加快产品上市,巩固了市场地位;基于科学的创业企业其产品研发周期长,风险大;此外这类企业不仅研发面向消费者的商业产品,还研发商业技术,为科研机构或企业提供技术平台。
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张庆芝
雷家骕
关键词基于科学的创业企业   发展与演化   诺贝尔奖   案例研究     
Abstract

In recent decades, with the rise of biopharmaceuticals, nanotechnology, new materials, a new science-based entrepreneurial firm (SBEF) was born.
In this paper, we designed an exploratory comparative multiple-case study of science-based entrepreneurialfirms created by the Nobel Prize-winning scientists to commercialize their research. The focus on those firms is representative of entrepreneurial science-based firms because these firms require extensive financial resources for an extended period of time to develop new products in emergent scientific and technological areas with high levels of uncertainty. We studies the development and evolution characteristics of science-based entrepreneurial firms from four dimensions: management team, funding sources, enterprise cooperation and product development. Through the analysis of such enterprise management teams, it is found that the management of science-based entrepreneurial firms is usually composed of “frontier scientists + business men”, which not only enables enterprises to be at the forefront of scientific research, but also effectively protects enterprise resource acquisition and operation; From the perspective of funding sources, the initial sources of funding include government funds and venture capital. Government funds support early R&D and reduce the risk of private investment. The main sources of funding for the development stage are venture capital, IPO, commercial cooperation and operating intellectual property. Diversified sources of funds effectively support the company’s huge research and development expenditures; corporate cooperation mainly includes academic cooperation and commercial cooperation. Academic cooperation keeps enterprises at the forefront of science while obtaining the latest patents; Business cooperation shortens the product development, speeds up product launch, and consolidates science-based entrepreneurial firms’ market position; science-based entrepreneurial firms have long product development cycles and high risks; in addition, these companies not only develop consumer products, but also develop technology platform for the research institutions or enterprises.
Understanding the development and evolution of science-based entrepreneurialfirms is an important question for practitioners and policymakers. Many countries invest heavily in sustaining a strong and healthy science base, but face challenges in the ability to commercialize and benefit from the economic impact of science. This study contributes to conceptual discussions of science-based entrepreneurial firms growth and has important policy and practitioner implications.

Keywordsscience-based entrepreneurial firm (SBEF)   development and evolution   Nobel Prize   case study     
Received 2018-10-29; published 2019-09-16
Fund:国家自然科学基金项目:“基于科学的创新:产业识别、创新模式及科学家参与程度研究”(71602183,2017.01-2019.12);“科技型高管权力与高技术企业创新绩效——基于正式权力与非正式权力综合视角的研究”(71702006,2018.01-2020.12);“我国经济由高速增长转向高质量发展的现实依据和总体框架研究”(71841018,2018.07-2019.06)。
Corresponding Authors: 张庆芝     Email: zhangqz@ucas.ac.cn
引用本文:   
张庆芝 戚耀元雷家骕.基于科学的创业企业发展与演化研究——以诺贝尔奖科学家参与创建的企业为例[J]  科研管理, 2019,V40(9): 108-119
Zhang Qingzhi,Qi Yaoyuan,Lei Jiasu.A research on the development and evolution of science-based entrepreneurial firms[J]  Science Research Management, 2019,V40(9): 108-119
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